Variable Interest Entities
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Variable Interest Entities [Abstract]|
|Variable Interest Entities||
4. Variable Interest Entities
We sell VOI notes receivable through special purpose finance entities. These transactions are generally structured as non-recourse to us and are designed to provide liquidity for us and to transfer the economic risks and benefits of the notes receivable to third parties. In a securitization, various classes of debt securities are issued by the special purpose finance entities that are generally collateralized by a single tranche of transferred assets, which consist of VOI notes receivable. We service the securitized notes receivable for a fee pursuant to servicing agreements negotiated with third parties based on market conditions at the time of the securitization.
In these securitizations, we generally retain a portion of the securities and continue to service the securitized notes receivable. Under these arrangements, the cash payments received from obligors on the receivables sold are generally applied monthly to pay fees to service providers, make interest and principal payments to investors, and fund required reserves, if any, with the remaining balance of such cash retained by us; however, to the extent the portfolio of receivables fails to satisfy specified performance criteria (as may occur due to, among other things, an increase in default rates or credit loss severity) or other trigger events occur, the funds received from obligors are required to be distributed on an accelerated basis to investors. Depending on the circumstances and the transaction, the application of the accelerated payment formula may be permanent or temporary until the trigger event is cured. As of December 31, 2017, we were in compliance with all applicable terms under our securitization transactions, and no trigger events had occurred.
In accordance with applicable accounting guidance for the consolidation of VIEs, we analyze our variable interests, which may consist of loans, servicing rights, guarantees, and equity investments, to determine if an entity in which we have a variable interest is a VIE. The analysis includes a review of both quantitative and qualitative factors. We base our quantitative analysis on the forecasted cash flows of the entity, and base our qualitative analysis on the structure of the entity, including our decision-making ability and authority with respect to the entity, and relevant financial agreements. We also use our qualitative analysis to determine if we must consolidate a VIE as the primary beneficiary. In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, we have determined these securitization entities to be VIEs of which we are the primary beneficiary and, therefore, we consolidate the entities into our financial statements.
Under the terms of certain of our VOI note sales, we have the right to repurchase or substitute a limited amount of defaulted notes for new notes at the outstanding principal balance plus accrued interest. Voluntary repurchases and substitutions by us of defaulted notes during 2017, 2016 and 2015 were $9.5 million, $6.5 million and $3.3 million, respectively. Our maximum exposure to loss relating to our non-recourse securitization entities is the difference between the outstanding VOI notes receivable and the notes payable, plus cash reserves and any additional residual interest in future cash flows from collateral.
The assets and liabilities of our consolidated VIEs are as follows (in thousands):
The restricted cash and the securitized notes receivable balances disclosed in the table above are restricted to satisfy obligations of the VIEs.