Basis Of Presentation And Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Basis Of Presentation And Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements [Abstract]|
|Basis Of Presentation And Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements||
2. Basis of Presentation and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of all of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, entities in which we hold a controlling financial interest, including Bluegreen/Big Cedar Vacations, LLC (a joint venture in which we are deemed to hold a controlling financial interest based on our 51% equity interest, our active role as the day-to-day manager of its activities, and our majority voting control of its management committee (“Bluegreen/Big Cedar Vacations”), and variable interest entities (sometimes referred to herein as “VIEs”) of which we are the primary beneficiary, as defined by Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Consolidation (“Topic 810”). We do not consolidate the statutory business trusts formed by us to issue trust preferred securities as these entities represent VIEs in which we are not the primary beneficiary. The statutory business trusts are accounted for under the equity method of accounting. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
On November 16, 2009, BBX Capital acquired a controlling interest in us. In connection with the acquisition, our assets and liabilities were measured at fair value as of the date of acquisition.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates our estimates, including those that relate to the estimated future sales value of inventory; the recognition of revenue; our allowance for loan losses; the recovery of the carrying value of real estate inventories; the fair value of assets measured at, or compared to, fair value on a non-recurring basis such as intangible assets and other long-lived assets; the estimate of contingent liabilities related to litigation and other claims and assessments; and deferred income taxes. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.
Significant Accounting Policies
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash in excess of our immediate operating requirements are generally invested in short-term time deposits and money market instruments, typically with original maturities at the date of purchase of three months or less. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained at various financial institutions. These financial institutions are located throughout the United States and in Aruba. However, a significant portion of our unrestricted cash is maintained with a single bank and, accordingly, we are subject to credit risk. Periodic evaluations of the relative credit standing of financial institutions maintaining our deposits are performed to evaluate and, if necessary, take actions in an attempt to mitigate credit risk.
Restricted cash consists primarily of customer deposits held in escrow accounts and cash collected on pledged/secured notes receivable not yet remitted to lenders.
Sales of VOIs. Revenue is recognized for sales of VOIs after control of the VOI is deemed transferred to the customer, which is when the legal rescission period has expired on a binding executed VOI sales agreement and the collectability of the note receivable from the buyer, if any, is reasonably assured. Transfer of control of the VOI to the buyer is deemed to occur when the legal rescission period expires as the risk and rewards associated with VOI ownership are transferred to the buyer at that time. We record customer deposits from contracts within the legal rescission period in restricted cash and accrued liabilities and other in our consolidated balance sheets as such amounts are refundable until the legal rescission period has expired. In cases where construction and development of our developed resorts has not been completed, we defer all of the revenue and associated expenses for the sales of VOIs until construction is complete and the resort may be occupied.
We generally offer qualified purchasers financing for up to 90% of the purchase price of VOIs. The typical financing provides for a term of ten years and a fixed interest rate, is fully amortizing in equal installments and may be prepaid without penalty. For sales of VOIs for which we provide financing, we have reduced the transaction price for expected loan losses, which we consider to be variable consideration. Our estimates of the variable consideration are based on the results of our static pool analysis, which relies on historical payment data for similar VOI notes receivable. Our policies regarding the estimation of variable consideration on our notes receivable are discussed in further detail under “Notes Receivable” below. VOI Sales where no financing was provided do not have any significant payment terms.
Fee-based sales commission revenue. We enter into fee-based sales arrangements with third-party developers to sell VOIs through our sales and marketing platform for which we earn a commission. We recognize commission revenue to the extent that, it is probable that a significant reversal of such revenue will not occur and the related consumer rescission period has expired. We recognize commission revenue over time as the third-party developer receives and consumes the benefits of the services.
Other fee-based services revenue and cost reimbursements. Revenue in connection with our other fee-based services (which are described below) is recognized as follows:
Resort and club management revenue is recognized as services are rendered. These services provided to the resort HOAs are comprised of day-to-day services to operate the resort, including management services and certain accounting and administrative functions. Management services provided to the Vacation Club include managing the reservation system and providing owner, billing and collection services. Our management contracts are typically structured as cost-plus with an initial term of three years and automatic one year renewals. We believe these services to be a series of distinct goods and services to be accounted for as a single performance obligation over time and recognize revenue as the customer receives the benefits of our services. We allocate variable consideration to the distinct good or service within the series, such that revenue from management fees and cost reimbursements is recognized in each period as the uncertainty with respect to such variable consideration is resolved.
We receive cost reimbursements for performing day to day management services, based on agreements with the HOAs. These costs primarily consist of payroll and payroll related costs for management of the HOAs and other services we provide where we are the employer. Cost reimbursements are based upon actual expenses and are billed to the HOA on a monthly basis. We recognize cost reimbursements when we incur the related reimbursable costs as the HOA receives and consumes the benefits of the management services.
Resort title fee revenue is recognized when escrow amounts are released and title documents are completed.
Rental revenue is recognized on a daily basis which is consistent with the period for which the customer benefits from such service.
Mortgage servicing revenue is recognized as services are rendered.
Fees received in advance are generally included in deferred income in our consolidated balance sheets until such time as the related service is rendered and revenue is recognized as stated above.
Interest Income. We provide financing for a significant portion of sales of our owned VOIs. We recognize interest income from financing VOI sales on the accrual method as earned based on the outstanding principal balance, interest rate and terms stated in each individual financing agreement. See “Notes Receivable” below for further discussion of the policies applicable to our VOI notes receivable.
Under timeshare accounting rules, rental operations, including accommodations provided through the use of our sampler program, are accounted for as incidental operations whereby incremental carrying costs in excess of incremental revenue are expensed as incurred. Revenue from the sampler program is deferred and typically recognized within a year from sale as guests complete stays at the resorts. During each of the years presented, our aggregate rental revenue and sampler revenue was less than the aggregate carrying cost of our VOI inventory. Accordingly, we recorded such revenue as a reduction to the carrying cost of VOI inventory, which is included in cost of other fee-based services in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for each year.
Our notes receivable are carried at amortized cost less an allowance for loan losses. Interest income is suspended, and previously accrued but unpaid interest income is reversed, on all delinquent notes receivable when principal or interest payments are more than 90 days contractually past due and not resumed until such loans are less than 90 days past due. As of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, $25.5 million and $20.4 million, respectively, of our VOI notes receivable were more than 90 days past due, and accordingly, consistent with our policy, were not accruing interest income. After approximately 127 days, our VOI notes receivable are generally written off against the allowance for loan loss.
To the extent we determine that it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized may occur, we record an estimate of variable consideration as a reduction to the transaction price of the sales of VOIs until the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved. Our estimates of the variable consideration are based on the results of our static pool analysis, which relies on historical payment data for similar VOI notes receivable and tracks uncollectibles for each period’s sales over the entire life of the notes. We also consider whether historical economic conditions are comparable to then current economic conditions, as well as variations in underwriting standards. We review our estimate of variable consideration on at least a quarterly basis. Loan origination costs are deferred and recognized over the life of the related notes receivable.
Our inventory consists of completed VOIs, VOIs under construction and land held for future VOI development. We carry our completed inventory at the lower of (i) cost, including costs of improvements and amenities incurred subsequent to acquisition, capitalized interest, real estate taxes and other costs incurred during construction, or (ii) estimated fair market value, less costs to sell. VOI inventory and cost of sales are accounted for under timeshare accounting rules, which require the use of a specific method of the relative sales value method for relieving VOI inventory and recording cost of sales. Under the relative sales value method required by timeshare accounting rules, cost of sales is calculated as a percentage of net sales using a cost-of-sales percentage - the ratio of total estimated development costs to total estimated VOI revenue, including the estimated incremental revenue from the resale of VOI inventory repossessed, generally as a result of the default of the related receivable. Also, pursuant to timeshare accounting rules, we do not relieve inventory for VOI cost of sales related to anticipated loan losses. Accordingly, no adjustment is made when inventory is reacquired upon default of the related receivable.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs are comprised of costs incurred in connection with obtaining financing from third-party lenders and are presented in our consolidated balance sheets as other assets or as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the associated debt liability. These costs are capitalized and amortized to interest expense over the terms of the related financing arrangements. As of December 31, 2019, and 2018, unamortized deferred financing costs totaled $12.3 million and $13.1 million, respectively. Interest expense from the amortization of deferred financing costs for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 was $4.1 million, $3.5 million and $3.1 million, respectively.
Property and Equipment
Our property and equipment is recorded at acquisition cost. We record depreciation and amortization in a manner that recognizes the cost of its depreciable assets over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the terms of the underlying leases or the estimated useful lives of the improvements.
We capitalize the costs of software developed for internal use in accordance with the guidance for accounting for costs of computer software developed or obtained for internal use. Capitalization of software developed for internal use commences during the development phase of the project and ends when the asset is ready for its intended use. Software developed or obtained for internal use is generally amortized on a straight-line basis over 3 to 5 years. Capitalized costs of software for internal use for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $9.6 million and $10.0 million, respectively.
Intangible assets consist of property management contracts with various HOAs to manage, service, staff and maintain the property. A majority of our property management contracts have indefinite useful lives and are not amortized, but instead are reviewed for impairment on at least an annual basis, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the related carrying amounts may not be recoverable. We did not record any impairment charges during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 or 2017.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We evaluate the recoverability of the carrying amounts of our long-lived assets, undeveloped or under development resort properties under the guidelines of ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment (“ASC 360”), which provides guidance relating to the accounting for the impairment or disposal of long-lived assets. We review the carrying amounts of our long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. We assess impairment by comparing the undiscounted cash flows of the assets to their carrying amounts. If estimated cash flows are insufficient to recover the investment, an impairment loss is recognized to write-down the carrying value of the asset to the estimated fair value less any costs of disposition. No impairment charges were recorded during any of the years presented.
Income tax expense is recognized at applicable U.S. tax rates. Certain revenue and expense items may be recognized in one period for financial statement purposes and in a different period for income tax purposes. The tax effects of such differences are reported as deferred income taxes. Valuation allowances are recorded in periods in which it is determined that the realization of deferred tax assets does not meet the more likely than not recognition threshold.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated by dividing the earnings available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is calculated to give effect to all potentially dilutive common shares that were outstanding during the reporting period. There were no potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during any of the reporting periods.
We expense advertising costs, which are primarily marketing costs, as incurred. Advertising expense was $144.3 million, $136.9 million, and $147.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
We have entered into marketing arrangements with various third parties. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, sales of VOIs to prospects and leads generated by our marketing arrangement with Bass Pro accounted
for approximately 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, of our total VOI sales volume. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to maintain this agreement in accordance with its terms or extend or renew this agreement on similar terms, or at all, nor is there any assurance that our business relationship with Bass Pro under the revised terms of our marketing agreement entered into in June 2019 will be as profitable as under the prior terms, or at all. See Note 12: Commitments and Contingencies for a description of the revised terms of our marketing agreement with Bass Pro.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” as subsequently amended by ASU 2018-01, ASU 2018-10, ASU 2018-11 and ASU 2018-20. This standard requires the rights and obligations created by leases of assets to be recognized as assets and liabilities, respectively, on the balance sheet of a lessee. For income statement purposes, the standard retains a dual model which requires leases to be classified as either operating or finance based on criteria that are largely similar to those previously required by lease accounting standards, Topic 840, but without explicit bright lines. This standard also requires extensive quantitative and qualitative disclosures, including significant judgments made by management in applying the standard, intended to provide greater insight into the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases.
We adopted this standard on January 1, 2019 and applied the transition guidance as of the date of adoption under the current period adjustment method. As a result, we recognized right-of-use assets and lease liabilities associated with our leases on January 1, 2019, with no cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated earnings, while the comparable prior periods in our financial statements have been and will continue to be reported in accordance with Topic 840, including the disclosures required by Topic 840.
The new standard includes a number of optional practical expedients under the transition guidance. We elected the package of practical expedients which allowed us to not reassess prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification, and initial direct costs. We also made accounting policy elections by class of underlying asset to not apply the recognition requirements of the standard to leases with terms of 12 months or less and to not separate non-lease components from lease components. Consequently, each separate lease component and the associated non-lease components are accounted for as a single lease component for lease classification, recognition, and measurement purposes.
Upon adoption of the standard on January 1, 2019, we recognized an operating lease liability of $26.5 million and an operating lease asset of $25.6 million. The difference between the operating lease liability and operating lease asset primarily reflects the reclassification of accrued and prepaid straight-line rent from accrued liabilities and prepaid expenses to the operating lease assets in our consolidated balance sheet. The implementation of the standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of operations or cash flows. See Note 7: Leases for additional information regarding the accounting for lease contracts.
Future Adoption of Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
The FASB has issued the following accounting pronouncements and guidance relevant to our operations which had not yet been adopted as of December 31, 2019:
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326)” (“ASU 2016-13”), which introduces an approach of estimating credit losses on certain types of financial instruments based on expected losses. ASU 2016-13 also expands the disclosure requirements regarding an entity’s assumptions, models, and methods for estimating the allowance for loan losses. Further, public entities will be required to disclose the amortized cost balance for each class of financial asset by credit quality indicator, disaggregated by the year of origination (i.e., by vintage year). This standard became effective for us on January 1, 2020. We are currently finalizing our assessment, however we do not expect the impact of the implementation to be material to our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other – Internal–Use Software (Subtopic 350-40)” (“ASU 2018-15”), which requires a customer in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract (“CCA”) to follow internal-use software guidance in ASC 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to capitalize as assets or expense as incurred. ASU 2018-15 also requires companies to present implementation costs related to a CCA in the same financial statement line items as the CCA service fees. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 and are applying the transition guidance as of the date of adoption prospectively, under the current period adjustment method. We expect that capitalized implementation costs related to a CCA that were in the implementation phase as of January 1, 2020, ranging from $1.5 million to $2.5 million, will be reclassified from property and equipment to prepaid expenses in connection with our adoption of this standard. We believe that the standard will not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef